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instrument

DEARMOON PROJECT

Target: Moon  
State: Planned

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state

Mission

Kind: Crewed lunar landing attempt (H)

State: Successful

Place: Moon

Operator: NASA

Date

Start:

Duration: 5 days, 22 hours, 54 minutes, 41 seconds

Mission Ending

"Life's like a movie, write your own ending. Keep believing, keep pretending." - Jim Henson

Rocket

Rocket: Saturn V SA-508

Kind: NASA

Manufacturer: CSM: North American RockwellLM: Grumman

Mass: 45,931 kilograms (101,261 lb)

Launch Site: Kennedy LC-39A

Flyby

1º Flyby: Moon (orbit and landing aborted)

Orbit

"You’re going very fast when you’re on orbit, going around the world once every hour and a half." - Robert Crippen

Lander

Region: South Pacific Ocean21°38′24″S 165°21′42″W / 21.64000°S 165.36167°W / -21.64000, -165.36167 (Apollo 13 splashdown)

Date: April 17, 1970, 18:07:41 (1970-04-17UTC18:07:42Z) UTC



Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell with Jack Swigert as command module (CM) pilot and Fred Haise as lunar module (LM) pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella. A routine stir of an oxygen tank ignited damaged wire insulation inside it, causing an explosion that vented the contents of both of the SM's oxygen tanks to space. Without oxygen, needed for breathing and for generating electric power, the SM's propulsion and life support systems could not operate. The CM's systems had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the LM as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing canceled, mission controllers worked to bring the crew home alive. Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide scrubber system to work in the LM, the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril briefly renewed public interest in the Apollo program, tens of millions watched the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean on television. An investigative review board found fault with preflight testing of the oxygen tank and the fact that Teflon was placed inside it. The board recommended changes, including minimizing the use of potentially combustible items inside the tank, this was done for Apollo 14. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized several times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13 – based on a memoir co-authored by Lovell titled Lost Moon – and an episode of the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.

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