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Kind: Venus flyby / lander

State: successful

Place: Venus

Operator: Soviet Academy of Sciences



Duration: Travel: 3 months and 6 daysLander: 110 minutes

Mission Ending

Last Contact: 18/abr/80


Rocket: Proton-K/D-1 8K82K

Kind: Soviet Academy of Sciences

Mass: 4,940 kg (10,890 lb)

Launch Site: Baikonur 81/23


1º Flyby: Venus


Reference System: Geocentric


Place: Venus

Region: 7°S 294°E / 7°S 294°E / -7, 294

Date: 21 December 1978, 03:30

Component: Venera 12 descent module

The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet uncrewed space mission to explore the planet Venus. Venera 12 was launched on 14 September 1978 at 02:25:13 UTC. Separating from its flight platform on December 19, 1978, the lander entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/s. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:30 Moscow time (0330 UT) on 21 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7–8 m/s. Landing coordinates are 7°S 294°E / 7°S 294°E / -7, 294. It transmitted data to the flight platform for 110 minutes after touchdown until the flight platform moved out of range while remaining in a heliocentric orbit. Identical instruments were carried on Venera 11 and 12.